Apache Tomcat. This article describes the installation and usage of Apache Tomcat for Java web development. Tomcat version 7.x is used in this tutorial.
1. Apache Tomcat
Apache Tomcat is a webcontainer which allows to run servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP) based web applications. Most of the modern Java web frameworks are based on servlets, e.g. JavaServer Faces, Struts, Spring.
Apache Tomcat also provides by default a HTTP connector on port 8080, i.e., Tomcat can also be used as HTTP server. But the performance of Tomcat is not as good as the performance of a designated web server, like the Apache HTTP server.
2.1. Ubuntu Linux
For Ubuntu you can install Tomcat via the following commands.
sudo apt-get install tomcat7 sudo apt-get install tomcat7-admin sudo apt-get install tomcat7-docs sudo apt-get install tomcat7-examples
Download the Windows installer for Tomcat7 from the Apache Tomcat Homepage and run the installer.
3. Managing Apache Tomcat
3.1. Start Tomcat on Ubuntu (Linux)
In Ubuntu the Tomcat server is started automatically. To restart Tomcat use the following command.
# Restart sudo /etc/init.d/tomcat7 restart # Stop sudo /etc/init.d/tomcat7 stop
3.2. Start Tomcat on Windows
To start Tomcat use
in the bin directory.
3.3. Test Tomcat
The default port for Tomcat is 8080. After starting Tomcat on your local machine, you can validate if Tomcat is running the URL: http://localhost:8080
This should show a web page similar to the following.
3.4. Admin console
Tomcat provides a webbased adminstration console which can be started via the following link: http://localhost:8080/manager/html
The available users can be found in the
file of the Tomcat configuration directory, i.e., the
file under Ubuntu.
On Ubuntu the user for the administrator console is not created
you have to add the
user entry manually to the
The following listing gives an example for a user. To get more
information try to login and see the resulting error message. Once
you entered a user and a password, restart the Tomcat server to
ensure your new users is activated.
<role rolename="manager-gui" /> <user username="tomcat" password="s3cret" roles="manager-gui" />
The default user for the Tomcat administration console under Windows is admin with the admin password.
The standard deployment format for webapplications is a
you create a war application just put this application
folder. The next time tomcat starts it will unpack
and make the
Web applications may require external libraries. Typically, web application contain their own libraries but if you want to make certain libraries available for all applications you can put them into the folder "lib" and a subfolder below "lib". These libraries are then available for all web applications.
4. Developing Java web applications
After going through the setup you probably want to learn how to develop servlets and JSP on installation directory. Please see Servlets and JSP development - Tutorial
5. Tomcat as HTTP Server
contains also a HTTP connector which can be used to serve static HTML pages. The standard directory which will be served is below the Tomcat
below the installation directory. Place static content
into this directory.
To allow directory browsing via Apache Tomcat change the
in the file
from false to true.
<servlet> <servlet-name>default</servlet-name> <servlet-class>org.apache.catalina.servlets.DefaultServlet</servlet-class> <init-param> <param-name>debug</param-name> <param-value>0</param-value> </init-param> <init-param> <param-name>listings</param-name> <param-value>true</param-value> </init-param> <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> </servlet>
6. About this website
7. Links and Literature
7.1. Apache Tomcat
7.2. vogella GmbH training and consulting support
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The vogella company offers expert consulting services, development support and coaching. Our customers range from Fortune 100 corporations to individual developers.
Appendix A: Copyright and License
Copyright © 2012-2016 vogella GmbH. Free use of the software examples is granted under the terms of the EPL License. This tutorial is published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany license.